Botanical classification: (1) Quercus petrea, Q. sessiliflora (2) Q. ropur, Q. pendunculata. Fam.: Fagaceae
Main products: Sawn wood, veneer
Natural attributes - structure - origins: Heavy wood (670-720 kg/m3). The heartwood is light yellow brown to yellow-gray. Usually straight grain wood but may have irregular structure and be cross grained, depending on the growth conditions. Characteristic silver grain figure on quarter-sawn wood due to broad rays. The British and Baltic oak is hard and rough with weight 7203 while the oak of N. Poland and the softer Slovenian oak have density 670 kg/m3. It grows in Europe, UK, middle Asia and North Africa.
Natural durability in time: Durable heartwood. The acid content erodes metals and therefore non-ferrous or galvanized metals should be used.
Mechanical attributes: If in contact with ferrous metals acquires blue spots, due to oxidation.
Density: R (12-15%) = 0,67-0,72 gr/cm3
Drying behavior and stability after drying: Very slow drying susceptible to cracking and warping. There is a little dimensional variability after drying.
Impregnation behavior: The sapwood is permeable and the heartwood is extremely resistant to impregnation.
Bending behavior: Very good steam bending properties.
Working properties - tool blunting: Causes moderate to heavy tool-blunting. Cutters must be kept sharp. Planing and shaping requires a cutting angle of 20 degrees.
Gluing behavior: Special care required.
Behavior in the dyeing and finishing: Very good dyeing and finishing.
The preponderance of tyloses in the pores of white oaks resists the passage of liquids making them suitable for barrels of cognac, wine and beer. The Slovenian, German, Volhynian oak is preferred for furniture. The English oak is best for boat building, dock and harbour work, sea defences, railway wagons, ladder rungs, sills, thresholds and for all purposes of exposure in contact with the ground. High class joinery, coffins, church furniture and carving, flooring, vehicle body bearers, plywood, decorative veneer in characteristic silver grain or raindrops design.
Botanical classification: Millettia Quercus alba, Q. prinus, Q. montana, Q. lyrata, Q. michauxii. Fam.: Fagaceae.
Main products: Sawn wood, veneer.
Natural attributes - structure - origins: Heavy wood (760 kg/m³) with coarse and uneven structure and color ranging from pale yellow-brown to yellow-gray with a pinkish tinge, similar to the European oak. Straight grained with a characteristic silver grain in quarter sawn wood. Southern areas produce fast growing trees with broad annual growth rings and a harder timber. It grows in the United States and Southeast Canada.
Natural durability in time: The heartwood is durable. The sapwood suffers intensely from insect attacks.
Mechanical attributes: Wood with medium flexural strength, with low modulus of elasticity which is amenable to steam bending.
Density: R (12-15%) = 0,76 gr/cm³
Drying behavior and stability after drying: Drying relatively slowly with a tendency for checking, splitting and honeycombing. Requires careful air or kiln drying. Medium movement after drying.
Impregnation behavior: The sapwood is moderately resistant and the heartwood is resistant to impregnation.
Bending behavior: Excellent.
Working properties - tool blunting: The slow-growing oak (northern regions) is easier to process with tools and machines.
Νailing and screwing: Good, but predrilling is recommended.
Gluing behavior: Special attention required as gluing behavior varies.
Behavior in the dyeing and finishing: Good dyeing and finishing.
More versatile than European oak, suitable for furniture and cabinets, woodworking, heavy construction, flooring, shipbuilding, ladders, agricultural tools, wagons, cooperage, coffins, pews - church pulpits, woodcuts. Decorative veneers.
Botanical classification: American Red Oad, American red Oak Quercus rubra.
Main products: Sawn wood, veneer.
Natural attributes - structure - origins: Heavy wood (770 kg/m³), with heartwood ranging from yellow-gray to pink, with a reddish tinge. Mainly straight grained and porous with a coarse texture. It has a less attractive design than the white oak due to smaller rays. The Southern oak is faster growing, heavier and rougher. It grows in the U.S. and Canada.
Natural durability in time: The heartwood is not durable and tends to be affected by insects.
Mechanical attributes: Wood with medium flexural strength, average modulus of elasticity and high crushing strength.
Density: R (12-15%) = 0,77 gr/cm³.
Drying behavior and stability after drying: Slow drying with a tendency for splitting, checking and honeycombing. Requires careful air or kiln drying. There is moderate dimensional variability after drying.
Impregnation behavior: The sapwood is resistant and the heartwood moderately resistant to impregnation.
Bending behavior: Very good flexural behaviour during steaming.
Working properties - tool blunting: Causes moderate tool blunting. Must maintain shatp tools.
Νailing and screwing: For nailing predrilling may be required.
Gluing behavior: Caution is required when gluing.
Behavior in the dyeing and finishing: Good paint, good finish.
Floors, furniture, vehicles, interior carpentry. Plywood, decorative veneers. It is not suitable for outdoor use.